Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals

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中国有色金属学报(英文版)

Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China

Vol. 20    No. 3    March 2010

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Manufacturing techniques of armor strips excavated from
Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s mausoleum, China
LIAO Ling-min(廖灵敏)1, PAN Chun-xu(潘春旭)1,2, MA Yu(马 宇)3

1. Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China;
2. Center for Archaeometry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China;
3. Museum of the Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shi Huang, Xi’an 710600, China

Abstract:The chemical compositions and microstructures of the armor strips excavated from the Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s mausoleum were examined systematically by using optical microscopy and electron microscopy. It was found that the armor strips were made of pure copper. Based on the morphology of α-Cu recrystal grain and copper sulphide (Cu2S) inclusions in the armor strips, the manufacturing techniques were proposed as follows: smelting pure copper, casting a lamellar plate, forming the cast ingots into sheets through repeated cold forging combined with annealing heat treatment, and finally cutting the sheets into filaments. Furthermore, through the deformation of copper sulphide (Cu2S) inclusions in the strips, the work rate during forging was evaluated and calculated to be close to 75%.

 

Key words: Qin Shi Huang’s mausoleum; armor strips; copper; manufacturing techniques; cold forging; annealing

ISSN 1004-0609
CN 43-1238/TG
CODEN: ZYJXFK

ISSN 1003-6326
CN 43-1239/TG
CODEN: TNMCEW

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